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The Best Programming Language for Blockchain in 2024

15 Nov 2023 updated
11 min

Table of content

Blockchain programming languages play a vital role in enabling businesses and industries to harness the power of blockchain technology. It is currently used in digital voting, medical recordkeeping, decentralized finance, gaming, capital markets, supply chain management, etc.

More and more businesses and individual users want to take advantage of blockchain to increase transparency, security, and communication. With so many potential applications of this sophisticated technology, the demand for blockchain development language skills and knowledge has been increasing.

This article provides some background knowledge about the best programming languages for blockchain, which can be helpful to both developers and businesses seeking to implement this technology in their work.

industries that global executives think are most advanced in blockchain development

Blockchain Languages: Stats Overview 

So, which languages are the most demanded and widely used in the blockchain sector? Here are the stats presented by the Hard Fork analytical agency, proving that Solidity takes indisputable leadership in this market. This state of affairs is reasonable, as Ethereum still dominates the blockchain space, and Solidity is the main tool for Ethereum-based app development. Next comes JavaScript, then Java, and other members of the top-5 list are Python and Go.

Other languages are also used in blockchain development but at a much lower degree. The list of solutions used in blockchain app creation also includes PHP, C++, C#, RIDE, and Quorum.   

How to choose a blockchain programming language before creating a project? 

The proper choice of blockchain coding language determines your project’s success to a large degree, as blockchain languages usually possess the required functionality and tools for building specific features and architecture. Here are some pro tips for choosing an optimal language meeting your project needs: 

  • Opt for independent and multi-platform language for blockchain development. It will simplify the process of coding and will allow using the blockchain app universally without the need to build native apps for each platform. 
  • Choose a language that supports quick and easy prototyping. 
  • Find a language that is not too rare and has a simple learning curve (it will make finding developers easier and won’t pause any bottlenecks with updates and support). 
  • Think about scalability, garbage collection, and statical typing features.

How Does a Transaction Get Into The Blockchain_

The nature of blockchain technology makes it extremely attractive for different industries, businesses, and individual users. It offers a secure and permanent record of all transactions and ensures an unprecedented level of data ownership. It helps reduce the risks of fraud and security breaches in the financial industry and enable effective monitoring and auditing. It is also associated with increased trust, cost-effectiveness, speed, and immutability, which explains the growing popularity of blockchain development services. 

Potential benefits of blockchain

Current and potential applications of blockchain technology are endless because every industry has some information that people want to exchange securely. The following list contains the examples of the spheres in which blockchain has been widely used:

For instance, in the supply chain, blockchain’s unprecedented degree of connectivity helps manage and track millions of products and shipping containers across the globe. Given the fast development of trade, blockchain is extremely valuable for facilitating data transfer among suppliers, manufacturers, shippers, logistic companies, customers, and other stakeholders. Thus, no matter what interests you have or what business goals you pursue, knowledge of programming languages required for blockchain is crucial for designing efficient blockchain-based systems.

Best Programming Languages for Blockchain Development

Since you already know the processes underpinning blockchain’s work, it’s time to discuss the programming languages used for blockchain. These programming languages are very similar to those employed in non-blockchain programs. The only difference is that they presuppose specific methods needed for blockchain creation. Another thing to remember is that the usual programming languages can also be employed to build blockchain systems. So, what are the top five blockchain programming languages



Created for designing smart contracts, this programming language has been earning increasing attention recently. It was built by the creators of Ethereum – one of the most popular technologies facilitating online payments with cryptocurrency. Therefore, Solidity is specifically adjusted to align with the Ethereum blockchain. The main benefit of this programming language is that it is similar to JavaScript, ECMA-262, Powershell, and C++, which makes it easy for developers to master it. The developer-friendliness is accompanied by flexible language and straightforward instructions, making Solidity an appropriate solution for blockchain development. Other advantages of this language include the following:

  • Support of inheritance features in constructions 
  • Support of hierarchical imaging
  • The use of member variables in classes and objects
  • The use of ABI

However, some may perceive Solidity as less applicable compared to other programming languages such as JavaScript. The problem is that Solidity is used for building blockchain only, while JavaScript is universal and can also be applied in other spheres. Nevertheless, this limitation does not prevent thousands of developers from using this blockchain technology programming language. 

Solidity still remains the number one choice among blockchain programmers, with hundreds of projects built using this language. The best-known projects on Solidity are as follows: 

  • Ethereum. The first example coming to everyone’s mind when they deal with Solidity use cases is Ethereum. All smart contracts of Ethereum-based projects are written in Solidity, and programs powering EVMs are, too.  
  • Compound. This unique algorithmic project establishes money markets with the help of an autonomous interest rate-setting mechanism. Its smart contracts are created on Solidity.
  • Uniswap. The first DEX built by an Ethereum enthusiast and dedicated follower of Buterin, this cryptocurrency exchange has many Solidity-powered infrastructure elements.

Solidity & Java script


JavaScript is another popular programming language for blockchain. Its primary sphere of application is app and game development, but it’s also highly valuable for blockchain coders because of the following: 

  • Easier and faster time-to-market.
  • Scalable dApp development.
  • Simple integrations.
  • Cross-blockchain app design.

Some blockchain projects utilizing JavaScript are: 

  • Hyperledger Fabric. It’s a permissioned, open-source framework supported by the Linux Foundation. The platform is enterprise-grade, with advanced privacy protocols and modular architecture development tools.
  • Chaincode – a fabric-specific script created for performing specific operations within a blockchain development framework.


Java is a common programming language used in blockchain. It is an official language for Android coding and is optimal for back-end development tasks. Besides, it is widely popular among blockchain programmers due to the use of C-syntax, smart contract development tools, and dApp creation functionality. Java allows simple memory cleaning, gives access to a broad array of libraries, and supports OOP.

Java laid the basis for many well-established blockchains: 

  • IOTA – a fee-free blockchain designed for machine-to-machine transactions and frequently used in IoT systems. 
  • NEO – a blockchain project specifically meant for the Chinese market. It supports a wide variety of features, including smart contract development and asset tokenization.
  • Corda – an open-source blockchain platform for enterprise-level applications. This consortium blockchain is run by several companies.

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Move is a safe, reliable programming language for smart contract design. It is a platform-neutral programming option that borrows much from Rust and an earlier Libra language. The language was originally developed at Meta (former Facebook) and meant for the Diem blockchain, but the project was ultimately abandoned by Meta and appropriated in many other projects, including the famous Sui and Aptos. 

The growing popularity of Move is explained by the pressing issues surrounding blockchain security. Smart contract flaws and vulnerabilities can cause enormous damage and erode user trust, which affects blockchain adoption. That’s why Move, as an innovative Layer 1 programming language, is gaining significance. The cutting-edge projects recently built on Move include: 

  • Aptos – a Layer-1 blockchain built on the classic version of Move, distinguished by high throughput and advanced security (aka “Solana killer”)  
  • Sui – a decentralized layer 1 blockchain with a delegated PoS algorithm, using a modified bytecode version of Move to simplify secure blockchain coding and promote the development of safe Web3 startups. 

With all these features in mind, I can summarize the benefits of Move as follows: 

  • Straightforward, platform-neutral coding logic 
  • Ability to construct custom resource types 
  • Advanced safety 
  • Absence of dynamic dispatch 
  • Unlimited flexibility


According to the TIOBE Index and PYPL Index, Python is considered the best programming language for blockchain, along with several other languages mentioned in this article. Its open-source support means that anyone can take advantage of multiple tools, libraries, and frameworks, thus reducing development time. Python is very easy to learn, which makes it a common entry point into the blockchain development sphere. Its universal nature allows using it for network servers, desktop apps, machine learning, and, more importantly, blockchain. The following advantages make Python a preferred choice for many blockchain developers working on diverse projects, from financial software development to gaming:

  • Suitable for base and scripting approaches 
  • Speed
  • Opportunity to scale the most complex apps
  • Decreases debug time due to build-in testing features 
  • Suitable for both blockchain and smart contracts 
  • Extensive community and good access to support

Python’s simplicity and efficiency will likely expand its application further in the near future, with the present-day notable uses of this language in blockchain including: 

  • Vyper – a simple blockchain programming language specifically meant for smart contract design, borrowing much of the Python toolkit and logic. 
  • Celo – Python laid the basis for much of Celo’s SDK, enabling Celo developers to conduct easier blockchain interactions. 
  • Algorand – the blockchain programming platform with an algokit for development based on Python tools.

Go (Golang)

Go, also referred to as Golang, is another programming language used to create blockchain systems. It is similar to C in synthesis, but it also has garbage collection, memory safety, and structural typing features. Let’s list some of the most notable features and advantages of this language:

  • Concurrency features
  • Readability and usability
  • High-speed performance 
  • Easy to maintain
  • Efficient
  • Suitable for high-performing programs

The Go community currently includes more than 800,000 developers, which means that one can always get technical support and guidance online. 

The most successful blockchain projects utilizing GO include: 

  • Cosmos – the Cosmos SDK, a set of tools for blockchain development, and the ComerBFT are written in GO. 
  • Kubo – the oldest IPFS implementation version, a command-line application also used as a library in GO development.
  • Ethereum Go – developers can build links between their dApps and the Ethereum network using Geth and employ Ethereum Go for launching and managing Ethereum nodes. 



C# is the classic in the programming world; it is an OOP language that provides robust functionality for creating enterprise-level apps, cloud solutions, and cross-platform digital products. It includes many features and is compliant with C, SQL, and .NET frameworks, each of which comes with many benefits for blockchain development. C# is widely used in dApp and blockchain programming due to: 

  • Open-source type of the language.
  • Simple, understandable syntax.
  • Syntactic similarities with C++ and Java tools for blockchain coding.
  • Portable code across devices.
  • Cost-effectiveness.

The best-known blockchain projects built using C# are as follows: 

  • Stratis – a decentralized blockchain development platform created for simplifying blockchain coding for Microsoft programmers.   
  • BaaS – a Stratis-powered solution for everyday use of complex blockchain architecture by non-blockchain companies.
  • NEO – the smart contract development logic of the NEO blockchain is built on C#.


This programming language is one of the oldest and most widely used ones. It has had an immense effect on the software industry for the past decade. This medium-complexity programming language is efficient and universal, which explains why many system drivers, operating systems, browsers, etc., use it as their primary language. The following features make C++ suitable for blockchain development:

  • Polymorphism
  • Abstraction
  • Data hiding
  • Encapsulation
  • Multi-threading features 
  • Efficient memory control

C++ is a preferred tool for blockchain development because it boasts high speed and object-oriented characteristics and has multiple platforms. Other features making C++ stand out include high computational performance, transparency, customization, and the use of the Standard Template Library (STL). These features simplify blockchain creation, allowing developers to connect data and functions in modules, just like blockchain uses cryptographic chains to connect the blocks. The fact that most outstanding blockchain platforms such as Ripple, EOS, Stellar, Monero, and Blockchain all use C++ demonstrates its efficiency and reliability. 

There are some drawbacks of C++ that should be mentioned:

  • This solution may be too complex for low-skilled developers
  • Its code may be redundant. 
  • There is no garbage collection feature in C++

However, these limitations are minor and do not outweigh all the advantages of this programming language. That’s why it was used in the development of the world’s top blockchain systems with stable and popular cryptocurrencies. The most audacious blockchain projects utilizing C++ include: 

  • Bitcoin – the first blockchain and cryptocurrency revolutionizing the world of peer-to-peer transactions and introducing the global community to decentralization. 
  • EOS – an open-source blockchain platform with impressive scalability, flexibility, and throughput parameters.
  • Ripple – a unique blockchain system with a real-time gross settlement mechanism and a proprietary remittance network. 

4IRE Crypto report


This newbie is less famous than Simplicity or C++, but it has been widely applied to build secure, innovative, and immutable blockchain solutions. Its most notable advantages for developers include the following:

  • Clear development guidelines 
  • Zero-cost abstractions
  • Speed
  • Memory efficiency
  • Reliability 
  • Self-upgradability function due to the use of WASM
  • Concurrency-based opportunities 
  • Management of mutable states 

Developers having skills in C++ use find it easy to learn Rust because these programming languages have similar syntax. However, this similarity may also become a challenge if developers fail to recognize the unique characteristics of Rust. The projects on Rust you’re sure to know about are: 

  • Solana – a widely popular blockchain with a huge throughput and super-low transaction fees. 
  • NEAR – an ecosystem featuring a Foundation blockchain with a sharded architecture and a PoS mechanism of consensus. 
  • Polkadot – a robust Web3 blockchain with outstanding interoperability and scalability parameters. 


Vyper’s growing use in blockchain development is explained by the fact it’s a contract-oriented programming language borrowing much of its architecture and logic from Python. It explicitly targets EVMs and offers language and compiler simplicity to developers. Vyper was created with a strong emphasis on security, with no loops and inheritance errors possible in the development process. Its other considerable benefit is a high degree of auditability and reader-friendliness. 

Blockchain experts often choose Vyper because of its minimalist language design and faster performance, but the price they have to pay for it is the limited set of features and limited contract interaction. 

Vyper’s advantages include: 

  • Simple, Python-like syntax. 
  • Cutting-edge security. 
  • Early error detection. 
  • Faster development and compilation. 
  • Impressive performance optimization. 
  • Auditability that guarantees code logic transparency. 
  • EVM and smart contract orientation.

The biggest projects built on Vyper: 

  • yEarn – a DeFi asset management platform with a variety of use cases, engaged in liquidity provision, crypto lending, and insurance.  
  • Curv – an institutional-grade crypto wallet that removes the need for private keys and simplifies crypto asset storage.
  • Lido – a liquid staking platform that unifies Ethereum, Polygon, and Solana blockchains and provides staking derivatives and other supportive native token staking services.


In conclusion, understanding the top blockchain programming languages is paramount in today’s rapidly evolving digital landscape. As blockchain technology becomes increasingly prevalent across industries, having proficiency in the right programming languages is essential for developers and businesses alike.

If you are not a developer, it’s always a good idea to ask for professional help. A blockchain consulting service will allow you to select the most suitable solution for your business or project. Experts can help you choose the right blockchain, the best programming language, and features that will make your product competitive.


Why is the demand for blockchain development skills increasing?

Blockchain development is on the rise as the digital world is gradually transitioning to the decentralized, blockchain-powered Web3. The global community of digital users is increasingly attracted to the promise and potential of dApps, which are transparent, secure, and focused on privacy and user ownership. That’s why demand for blockchain development services is quickly rising, with a pronounced shortage of blockchain coding and engineering skills observed worldwide. The pace of human learning is much slower than that of technological progress, so skilled and talented blockchain developers are in extremely high demand today. 

How can blockchain consulting services assist businesses in making the right technology and language choices?

Blockchain consulting is a vital starting step in the development of any blockchain business project. A company should evaluate its business needs against the existing technological options and choose a tech combination that meets its objectives best. Besides, consulting companies always keep pace with the quickly evolving blockchain development landscape, so they can advise on state-of-the-art technologies to beat the competitors and maximize the project’s chances for success.

How do I choose a suitable blockchain language for a DeFi project?

The language of your DeFi project will depend on the blockchain platform you’re choosing; it may be Ethereum, BSC, Polkadot, or Solana, among others. Each of the platforms offers a set of recommended compatible languages for DeFi projects. Experienced consultants will also be of invaluable help in the selection of proper smart contract language specifically matched to the planned project; for instance, dApp design can be best done with Solidity, while C++, Python, and JavaScript are more suitable for Web3 game development. Other issues you should consider when choosing a language are the gas fees (too high on Ethereum), scalability potential, and interoperability.

What are the best programming languages for smart contract development?

Times are changing fast, and the top standards for smart contract development are also emerging. Only a couple of years ago, the top list of programming languages for smart contracts included Solidity, Rust, Plutus (for Cardano-based projects), and Michelson (for Tezos). Today, these giants of smart contract development are giving way to newer, simpler, and more robust programming options, such as Vyper, Yul, Cairo, and Move, though Rust and Solidity still preserve high demand and popularity.

Where can I find professional blockchain developers with expertise in the language I need for my project?

It’s essential to do your due diligence when looking for a blockchain developer, as few companies have the required expertise and tech stack to deal with such projects. 4IRE is one of the leading blockchain development providers in Ukraine, Europe, and worldwide. With 250+ skilled coders on board, a vast tech stack comprising the top modern blockchain technologies, and more than a decade of experience in blockchain programming, we can provide tried and tested, secure blockchain products with comprehensive post-launch support, audits, and maintenance. 

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